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origine du wahhabisme

[72] Ibn Abd al-Wahhab saw a role for the imam, "responsible for religious matters", and the amir, "in charge of political and military issues". They were told to report suspicious behaviour to regular police and anti-drug units, who would decide whether to take the matter further. After 9/11, the then interior minister Prince Nayef blamed the Brotherhood for extremism in the kingdom,[204] and he declared it guilty of "betrayal of pledges and ingratitude" and "the source of all problems in the Islamic world", after it was elected to power in Egypt. [45][46] This practice has proved controversial and has received considerable criticism from Sufi and Shia Muslims and in the non-Muslim world. [317], Wahhabis have traditionally given their allegiance to the House of Saud, but a movement of "Salafi jihadis" has developed among those who believe Al Saud has abandoned the laws of God. And "two important and interrelated features" that distinguished Salafis from the Wahhabis: Hamid Algar and another critic, Khaled Abou El Fadl, argue Saudi oil-export funding "co-opted" the "symbolism and language of Salafism", during the 1960s and 70s, making them practically indistinguishable by the 1970s,[80] and now the two ideologies have "melded". [285] He rejected deference to past juridical opinion (taqlid) in favor of independent reasoning (ijtihad), and opposed using local customs. However, in the vigor to expose strains of extremism, we must not forget that open discussion is the best tool to debunk the extremist literature rather than a suppression of First Amendment rights guaranteed by the U.S.  : […] Son auteur, Louis-Alexandre de Corancez, consul général de France, avait suivi les routes caravanières de Bagdad à Alep. [369] Subsequently, Nahdlatul Ulama promotes Islam Nusantara, as an alternative movement against the growing austerity, intolerance, radicalization and violence brought by Wahhabi movement within modern Indonesian society. Sexual intercourse out of wedlock may be punished with beheading,[246] although sex out of wedlock was permissible with a female slave until the practice of slavery was banned in 1962 (Prince Bandar bin Sultan was the product of "a brief encounter" between his father Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz – the Saudi defense minister for many years – and "his slave, a black servingwoman"). [184] [68], Wahhabis are not in unanimous agreement on what is forbidden as sin. it reorganized the religious landscape by promoting those associations and ulamas who followed its lead, and then, by injecting substantial amounts of money into Islamic interests of all sorts, it won over many more converts. Ottoman return of Mecca 1813 after being ousted by Salafis. 2014 population estimate of 2 million, compared to 30 million for Saudi Arabia. By 1980, Saudi Arabia was earning every three days the income from oil it had taken a year to earn before the embargo. 141, 146), "Najdi doctrine" (pp. With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the Al Saud dynasty, and with it Wahhabism, spread to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Someone who does such things even if their lives are otherwise exemplary is not a Muslim but an unbeliever (as Ibn Abd al-Wahhab believed). ", "Wahhabism out of place in Malaysia, says fatwa council chief", "Fatwa bars Wahhabis from Barelvi mosques", "The Beirut Review: A Journal on Lebanon and the Middle East", "Islamic Radicalism: Its Wahhabi Roots and Current Representation", "On Islam and 500 most influential Muslims", "The Naqshbandiyya Nazimiyya Sufi Order of America: Sufism and Spirituality", "Wahhabism to ISIS: how Saudi Arabia exported the main source of global terrorism", "How Saudi Wahhabism Is the Fountainhead of Islamist Terrorism", "Islamic conference in Chechnya: Why Sunnis are disassociating themselves from Salafists", "Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques", "New Report on Saudi Government Publications", "Obama Top Muslim Adviser Part of Two More Organizations Tied to U.S. Muslim Brotherhood", "Houston Community College scales back operation in Qatar", "While U.S. universities see dollar signs in Qatari partnerships, some cry foul", "No Petrodollar Land Grabbing for Qatar in Brussels", "Qatar Financing Wahhabi Islam in France, Italy, Ireland and Spain", "Qatar Charity, Pioneer and Master of Terror Finance", "Desert upstart Qatar reaches out to the world", "Mecca's ancient heritage is under attack – Developments for pilgrims and the strict beliefs of Saudi clerics are encroaching on or eliminating Islam's holy sites in the kingdom", "Saudis Turn Birthplace of Wahhabism Ideology into Tourist Spot", "History of the Cemetery of Jannat Al-Baqi", 'The Caliphate, the Hejaz and the Saudi-Wahhabi Nation-State', "Wahhabism." [8] Islamic scholars, including those from the Al-Azhar University, regularly denounce Wahhabism with terms such as "Satanic faith". "pure Islam" (David Commins, paraphrasing supporters' definition), "a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, and restricts Islam's capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances" (David Commins, paraphrasing opponents' definition), "a conservative reform movement ... the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded, and [which] has influenced Islamic movements worldwide" (, "a sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar" with footholds in "India, Africa, and elsewhere", with a "steadfastly fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in the tradition of Ibn Hanbal" (Cyril Glasse). Muslims visiting the resting places of Ahl al-Bayt or Sahabah still pray to Allah alone while remembering the Prophet's companions and family members. [206][207], Reformist actions on religious policy taken by Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman (MbS) in 2017 have led some to question the future of Wahhabi conservatism. [114], By the 1880s, at least among townsmen if not Bedouin, Wahhabi strict monotheistic doctrine had become the native religious culture of the Najd. Videos from the group's territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van. Shortly thereafter, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, a Muslim Brother cleric with ties to Saudi religious institutions,[169] issued a fatwa[170] declaring defensive jihad in Afghanistan against the atheist Soviet Union, "fard ayn", a personal (or individual) obligation for all Muslims. In its wake, the World Muslim League was established. ", "Salafis and the Muslim Brotherhood: What is the difference? According to a doctrine known as al-wala' wa al-bara' (literally, "loyalty and disassociation"), Abd al-Wahhab argued that it was "imperative for Muslims not to befriend, ally themselves with, or imitate non-Muslims or heretical Muslims", and that this "enmity and hostility of Muslims toward non-Muslims and heretical had to be visible and unequivocal. Some Wahhabi preachers or activists go further than the official Saudi Arabian Council of Senior Scholars in forbidding (what they believe to be) sin. Saudi Clerics and Shia Islam, by Raihan Ismail, Oxford University Press, 2016. [24] With the help of funding from Saudi petroleum exports[25] (and other factors[26]), the movement underwent "explosive growth" beginning in the 1970s and now has worldwide influence. [394], There has been much concern, expressed in both American and European media and scholarship, over the fact that Wahhabi countries like Saudi Arabia and Qatar have been financing mosques and buying up land all over Europe. ", Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab did not accept that view. [362][363] Another important early rebuttal of Wahhabism came from the Sunni jurist Ibn Jirjis, who argued that supplicating the saints is permitted to "Whoever declares that there is no god but God and prays toward Mecca," for, according to him, supplicating the saints is not a form of worship but merely calling out to them, and that worship at graves is not idolatry unless the supplicant believes that buried saints have the power to determine the course of events. [189] But what "amounted to seeking infidels' assistance against a Muslim power" was difficult to justify in terms of Wahhabi doctrine. the use of ornamentation on or in mosques, all of which is considered orthodoxy in the rest of the Islamic world. "[386] Having said that, Sheikh Ahmad al-Tayeb excluded the "Salafists" from the term of Ahluls Sunna (Sunnis) stating that Salafists – also known as Wahhabis – are not from among the Sunnis. En 1810 paraissait à Paris un livre intitulé Histoire des Wahabis, depuis leur origine jusqu'à la fin de 1809. Voluntary contact was considered by Wahhabi clerics to be at least a sin, and if one enjoyed the company of idolaters, and "approved of their religion", an act of unbelief. Britain had aided Abdulaziz, and when the Ikhwan attacked the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, as a continuation of jihad to expand the Wahhabist realm, Abdulaziz struck, killing hundreds before the rebels surrendered in 1929. [244], Senior Wahhabi leaders in Saudi Arabia have determined that Islam forbids the traveling or working outside the home by a woman without their husband's permission – permission which may be revoked at any time – on the grounds that the different physiological structures and biological functions of the two sexes mean that each is assigned a distinctive role to play in the family.

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