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accessibility definition ap human geography

In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution, a highly organized and specialized systems for organizing industrial production and labor. Advanced Placement Human Geography is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography. Accessibility View Flashcards . Farming: The methodical cultivation of plants and/or animals. Example: I prefer to go to the suburban mall because it has much better accessibility than the downtown mall. Front: Back: accessibility. Accessibility is defined as the ability to reach a place with respect to another place. Most landscapes are comprised of a combination on natural and human-induced influences. the first theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; the geographical situation of people and things. Accessibility in regards to geography is an important element in mobility for people, freight, or information. measurement of the physical space between two places, see complementarity (a condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each others demands) and intervening opportunity (the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away). Accessibility determines equal access and opportunity. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work, One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. The role of CFCs in the destruction of the ozone layer led to the signing of an international agreement (the Montreal Agreement), the primeval supercontinent, hypothesized by Alfred Wegener, that broke apart and formed the continents and oceans as we know them today; consisted of two parts--a northern Laurasia and a southern Gondwana, the formation of carbohydrates in living plants from water and carbon dioxide, through the action, loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species. economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment--such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture. Commodification occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy, The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit, The visible imprint of of human activity and culture on the landscape. There are several prevailing threads that bind the curriculum areas of human geography, but none as currently pervasive, universal, and collectively altering to the world’s population as globalization. Ap Human Geography: Chapter 8: Political Geography. the design of a spatial distribution (e.g. See more. AP Human Geography is an investigation of how the human species has populated the earth and developed different cultures, political systems, and means of production. representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. At times, an especially strong shaman might attract a regional following. This is a subject that can be a little hard to pin down because it represents an intersection of lots of different information. Definition; Absolute Distance: The distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length such as a mile or kilometer: Absolute location: The exact position of an object or place, measured within some other place: Accessibility: The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place: Azimuthal … The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages; the opposite of language divergence, Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries, the term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in late-eighteenth-century Europe, The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. energy supply and labor costs), the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance, the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction, model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration, a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton's definition; hundreds of others exist, The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. AP Human Geography; Unit 1: Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives. also called the Public Land Survey, the systems was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey systems. dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales. Term: contagious diffusion Definition: the distance controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person Term: cultural determinism Definition: the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels Term: cultural ecology Definition: the study of human … Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary, A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs, The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking, A set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related, Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin, Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent, Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin, Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Australia, The tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language, Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language, Language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family, The opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages, Hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew wherein he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe's Indo-European languages (from Anatolia (present-day Turkey)); North African and Arabian languages (from the western arc of the Fertile Crescent); and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (from the eastern arc of the Fertile Crescent), One major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues, Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo- European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and on into the Balkans, Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed, Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south, Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago, A term deriving from "Frankish language" and applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic. People who are in locations that are more accessible will be able to reach activities and destinations faster than those in inaccessible locations. degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations. However, most shamans remain local figures, The system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic law. In this context, accessibility refers to the ease of reaching destinations. The latter will be unable to reach the same amount of locations in a certain period of time. Card range to study:-Number of cards: ... Ap Human Geography Chapter 1. the term given to zones in Northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.4. Paul Barter. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. Definition. term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor, and the latest technology, dependence on a single agricultural commodity, developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation, areas of the world with similar climatic charactaristics, production system based on large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. The males in each age group are represented to the left of the center line of each horizontal bar; the females in each age group are represented to the right of the center line, Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase, The level at which a national population ceases to grow, Movement—for example, nomadic migration—that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally, The space within which daily activity occurs, Movement among a definite set of places—often cyclic movement, Movement—for example, college attendence or military service—that involves temporary, recurrent relocation, A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances, A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures, Another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million United States citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years, A change in residence intended to be permanent. Nomadic groups around the world depended on migratory animals, wild fruit, berries, and roots for sustenance. According to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's planactivity space The space within which daily activity occurs, One of three major branches of Christianity, the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with the Roman Catholic Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey). the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized, as people and businesses from the city move to these spaces, CBD-(Burgess Model) divides the city into five concentric zones, defined by their function, a term introduced by American journalist JOel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the Central Business District (CBD) toward a new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe, a spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. Chapter 1 Key Issue 2 and 3. The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually deoted to religioius purposes, in Ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaingns, socialized, and traded, the absolute location of a city, often chosen for the best trade location, the best defensive location, or an important religious location, the focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora, a city's relative location, its place in the region and world around it, a crescent-shaped zone across Eurasia from England in the west to Japan in the east, including the cities of London, Paris, Venice, Constantinople (Istanbul today), and Tabriz, Samarqand, Kabul, Lahore, Amra, Jaunpur, Xian, Anyang, Kyoto and Osakatrade area an adjacent region within which a city's influence is dominant, holds that in a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy, theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another, the movement of milloins of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions (Sunbelt) of the United States, the division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. Ur and Babylon) located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500 BCE, and which was founded in the Fertile Crescent, chronologically the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 BCE, chronologically, the third urban hearth, dating 2200 BCE, Rivers in present-day China, it was at the confluence of the Huang He and Wei Rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was established around 1500 BCE, chronologically the fifth urban hearth, dating 200 BCE, literally "high point of the city". Define possibilism. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people, the Jews, From the Greek "to disperse," a term describing forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place. Questions from the 2016 administration of the AP Human Geography … The regional position or situation of a place relative to … The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population, Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture, "When mapping data, whether human or physical geographers, cartographers, the geographers who make maps, generalize the information the present on maps." housing or manufacturing), areas with relatively uniform land use, for example, an industrial zone or a residential zone, a concentration of business and commerce in the city's downtown. ", Transportation Accessibility and Geography, Spatial Analysis: Measuring Location and Distance, What Is the Common Good in Political Science? Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusions routes, and distribution of diseases. cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. The ozone layer acts as a filter for the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the first international convention aimed at addressing the issue of ozone depletion. … Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns, The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. -3-2. Today, the concept of globalization is commonly defined as the integration of hazardous wast causing danger from chemicals and infectious organisms. belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures. They believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the traditions (sunna) of Muhammad as authoritativePolitical Geography the study of the political organizations of the world, a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government, (Robert Sack) the attempt by and individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area, having the last say (having control) over and territory-politically and militarily, the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states, marked the beginning of the modern state and ended the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The location of … 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. a discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict social hierarchy maintained by Hinduism, Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. (See also rectangular survey system), a system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. Resources in spatial analysis typically surround the development of networks and urban systems, landscapes, and geo-computation, a new field of research to understand spatial data analysis. state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character. With reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country. Subsequent meetings in London (1990) and Copenhagen (1992) accelerated the timing of CFC phaseout, and a worldwide complete ban has been in effect since 1996.globalization the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarly in appearance to other such homes, homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs. Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts Note: The following concepts transcend all units in AP Human Geography; they are central to all geographic thinking and analysis and could even be considered central to any definition of geography. Originally denoting the dispersal of Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade or Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, The movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land, Religion based on the teachings of Jesus. fieldwork. the study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. For example, in the United States, "the South" and "the Mid-Atlantic region" are perceptual regions, Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery. criminal records, poor health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating, Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and cityassimilation, In the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which a single stereotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs, The process through which something is given monetary value. economic activity associated with the provision of services--such transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs. Accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured. Accessibility is defined as the ability to reach a place with respect to another place. in the world economy, people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit, the process of placing a price on a good and then buying, selling, and trading the good, processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology thereby generating more wealth in the world economy. Earth. the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape, physical location of geographic phenomena across space, they are location, human-environment, region, place, and movement. crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants. a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U. S. interior. a structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Both forms of transportation modes rely on each other in some way, depending on the scenario, but remain separate entities. AP Human Geography. People who are in locations that are more accessible will be able to reach activities and destinations faster than those in inaccessible locations. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend to their crops, one of two components, together with social stratification, that enable the formation of cities; agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her familiy and which is then sold for consumption by others, one of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities, the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige, (or urban elite) consist of a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others, region of great cities (e.g. AP Human Geography Unit 3 Terms (Culture and Identity) questionCulture answerA group's way of life, including the shared system of social meanings, values and relations that is transmitted between generations ... Get instant access to all materials Become a Member. All information found at: http://geography.about.com/od/geographyglossarya/g/ggaccessibility.htm. The agricultural location theory contained in the von Thunen model is a leading example, costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g. Cards In This Set. The Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security, in the general sense, associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade, a culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals (ranging from autonomy to statehood), a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space, the idea that people are the ultimate sovereign-that is the people, the nation, have the ultimate say over what happens within the state, a state with more that one nation inside its borders, when a nation stretches across borders and across states. Unit guides clearly lay out the course content and skills and recommend sequencing and pacing for them throughout the year. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants. a country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) he capital city as well, areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services, driven primarily by the global media industry, with respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare, the total value of all goods, and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. hazardous waste-emitting radiation from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons factories, and nuclear equipment in hospitals and industry. Lao-Tsu focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature, Literally "wind-water." The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption, the geographic situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently, the seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world. study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places. Decisions around transportations typically include tradeoffs with different types of access, and how it is measured affects larger impacts. To measure transportation system data, there are three approaches some policymakers use, including traffic-based measurements, mobility-based ones, and accessibility-based data. These methods range from tracking vehicle trips and traffic speed to traffic time and general travel costs. A great example of improving accessibility, rather than mobility, is in the case of a rural transport scenario where water supply is needed at houses far away from the source. economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to a formal economy. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. AP Human Geography: ... Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account. Try it now ... Human & Cultural Geography: Definition, Characteristics & … crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants. The two main components of accessibility in transportation and geography are location and distance. The systems divides land into a series of rectangular parcels. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants, Practice routinely followed by a group of people, The spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spread, Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs, Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities, A region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area, The notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa.

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