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louis xiv règne

Legal matters did not escape Louis' attention, as is reflected in the numerous "Great Ordinances" he enacted. Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the preemptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany (the "Devastation of the Palatinate"). Il lui trouve plusieurs grands précepteurs, mais Louis XIV n’est pas un élève très assidu et préfère des activités plus concrètes, telles que la danse, l’art ou la stratégie militaire. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre, was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities. French diplomacy secured Bavaria, Portugal, and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.[83]. [93] Under the influence of his very religious second wife, he became much stronger in the practice of his Catholic faith. [113] Orléans, however, had Louis' will annulled by the Parlement of Paris after his death and made himself sole regent. Accordingly, the king created a regency council as Louis XIII had in anticipation of Louis XIV's own minority, with some power vested in his illegitimate son Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine. In 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette discovered the Mississippi River. However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin, known as Monseigneur. People in France were complaining about the expansion of royal authority, the high rate of taxation, and the reduction of the authority of the Parlement de Paris and other regional representative entities. He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided. [94], Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles. Ses parents, Louis XIII et Anne d’Autriche, attendaient désespérément la naissance de leur premier enfant depuis plus de vingt ans. Louis played an Egyptian in Le Mariage forcé in 1664, a Moorish gentleman in Le Sicilien in 1667, and both Neptune and Apollo in Les Amants magnifiques in 1670. En 1685, Louis XIV révoque l'édit de Nantes qui autorisait la "Religion Prétendue Réformée" (RPR) en France. That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants. Cette révolte est appelée « la Fronde ». His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not. Louis XIV renforce la centralisation du pouvoir royal et impose définitivement la monarchie absolue. This required breaking up the Triple Alliance; he paid Sweden to remain neutral and signed the 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover with Charles, an Anglo-French alliance against the Dutch Republic. Secondly, following the proposal of René de Marillac and the Marquis of Louvois, he began quartering dragoons in Protestant homes. [1][a] Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe.[3]. [120], Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. Ces fortifications existent toujours pour la plupart. The taille was reduced at first; financial officials were forced to keep regular accounts, auctioning certain taxes instead of selling them privately to a favored few, revising inventories and removing unauthorized exemptions (for example, in 1661 only 10 per cent from the royal domain reached the King). Cette totale réorganisation militaire accroît considérablement la force et l’enthousiasme de l’armée. He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine, and La Fontaine, whose works remain influential to this day. After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.[88]. "[131][132] Louis is recorded by numerous eyewitnesses as having said on his deathbed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." Il demande à Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban de fortifier de nombreuses villes dans les régions frontalières et sur les côtes. [92], Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church. Her rationales for choosing Mazarin were mainly his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army. The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th. Louis XIV prend le risque d'affaiblir son royaume et de provoquer une guerre civile. Après une exposition de sa dépouille pendant neuf jours, celle-ci est transportée jusqu'à la basilique Saint-Denis. Parmi les nombreuses représentations du monarque, l'une est restée célèbre et considérée comme le portrait officiel de Louis XIV : celui du peintre français Hyacinthe Rigaud. In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the 1680s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule. Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Anne imprisoned any aristocrat or member of parliament who challenged her will; her main aim was to transfer to her son an absolute authority in the matters of finance and justice. [125][126], In 1848, at Nuneham House, a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt, Archbishop of York, was shown to the Dean of Westminster, William Buckland, who ate it.[127]. Avec elle, le roi marche tout d’abord vers les Pays-Bas, déclenchant la guerre de Dévolution (1667-1668). A conflict with Spain marked his entire childhood, while during his reign, the kingdom took part in three major continental conflicts, each against powerful foreign alliances: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. Pendant ce temps, il parfait son initiation militaire auprès de Turenne. But attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood. Son règne (exceptionnellement long) voit la France remplacer l'Espagne au premier rang en Europe. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe. Jusqu'en 1685 les guerres seront victorieuses et Louis XIV impose sa volonté à l'Europe. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport . C’est sans doute la raison pour laquelle il mènera plus tard un règne absolutiste, affaiblissant toujours le pouvoir de la noblesse. Philip, Duke of Anjou, thus became Philip V, King of Spain. The Frondeurs claimed to act on Louis' behalf, and in his real interest against his mother and Mazarin. Additionally, Mazarin's relations with Marie Mancini were not good, and he did not trust her to support his position. [citation needed]. Il aura ainsi établi une monarchie absolue. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike (such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun). Louis, however, struck more than 300 to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France. Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. La succession repose sur un enfant extrêmement jeune, l'arrière-petit-fils du roi, qui deviendra le roi Louis XV alors qu'il n'a que cinq ans.

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